Wrangling Data

  • Wrangling Data

    Overview At Trifacta, we emphasize the importance of Human-Computer interaction. As such, everything in the Transformer Page allows for human input and interaction. From most accessible to most flexible, we'll outline the three core access points to wrangling your data in Trifacta Predictive Interaction Based on your interaction with the data, Trifacta's machine learning algorithms will…

  • DEFINITION: Transformer Page

    On the Transformer page, you can identify the data that you need to transform and build your transformation recipes. When you make changes to your recipe, those changes are immediately applied to the sample data shown in the data grid. In real-time, you can preview the results of your transforms and quickly iterate through the data wrangling process. The Transformer page contains the following ele…

  • DEFINITION: Preview Cards

    Preview Cards display suggestions for transform steps that you can apply to the data in the Transformer Grid. The suggestions vary depending on the data you have selected. You can click on each card to preview the effect that the displayed transform step will have on your data. Preview Cards are displayed at the bottom of the Transformer page.Tip: As you mouse over areas of the Transformer page …

  • FAQ: What are the 'Add to Recipe' and 'Modify' buttons?

    The Add to Recipe and Modify buttons appear on the panel at the bottom of the screen. To add a transform to your recipe, click a suggestion card. Then, click Add to Recipe. If needed, you can customize the selected suggestion. Click the suggestion card and then click Modify. This will bring you into Transform Builder, where you can complete your edits. To edit the raw Wrangle language stateme…

  • HOW TO: Turn Off/On Card Suggestions

    Transformation suggestions are now grouped onto "suggestion cards" that organize similar transformations together. This allows you to preview several similar transformations at the same time. To turn off Card Suggestions: Click the Grid Options button in the upper right hand of the grid.Deselect Card Suggestions.Card Suggestions have now b…

  • DEFINITION: Transform Editor

    In the Transform Editor, you can build recipe steps by typing Wrangle commands into the text box. Just like the Transform Builder, suggestions are presented to you based on the data you have selected in the other panels of the Transformer Page. NOTE: The Transform Editor is recommended for users who are familiar with the basic mechanics of scripting and with the Wrangle language. Novice users may…

  • HOW TO: View the Wrangle Recipe for a Dataset

    In the Transformer page, click the Open Recipe button on the right side of the data grid: The recipe, which is the set of sequential transformation steps to apply to your dataset, is displayed in the panel: To make changes, click the recipe step to edit. Select from the available options. keywords: wrangle recipe, transformer…

  • HOW TO: Jump to a Column in the Transformer Grid

    1. Click the number next to Columns at the top of the Transformer Grid: Trifacta opens a simplified list of the columns in your dataset.2. Click the Show in Grid icon next to the name of the column that you want to view: Trifacta centers the dataset preview in the Transformer Grid around the column that you selected, as shown in the following image: …

  • HOW TO: View the Distribution of Data Types in a Dataset

    1. Click the number next to Data Types at the top of the Transformer Grid: 2. Trifacta shows a drop-down list of the data types in your dataset, and how often each data type appears: …

  • HOW TO: Disable Card Suggestions

    1. Click on the Grid Options icon at the top right of the Transformer Grid:2. Deselect the Card Suggestions checkbox:3. Transform suggestions will now be displayed in the classic list format, as shown in the following image:…

  • HOW TO: Change the Data Type of a Column

    When you create a new dataset, Trifacta identifies patterns in the data and automatically suggests appropriate data types for each column in the dataset. You can update the data type of a column if necessary. 1. Open a dataset in Trifacta's Transformer page.2. Click the Type Indicator at the top left of the column:  3. Select the new data type for the column from the Type Selector: 4. …

  • FAQ: What do the horizontal bar charts on the Transformer page show?

    The horizontal bar charts on the Transformer page are called the Data Quality Bars. These bars show you the percentage of valid, mismatched, and blank records in each column. You can select sections (as in the image below) in the data quality bar to highlight and/or filter the data in the Transformer Grid.See also:FAQ: What do the column charts on the Transformer page show?keywords: Data Quality B…

  • FAQ: What do the column charts on the Transfomer page show?

    Histograms (column charts) in Transformer The bar chart at the top of each column characterizes the data in that column.  The bar charts are calculated from the sample rows currently shown in transformer.  The bar chart for each column is customized to the data type and content of that column: For numerical types (integers, floats), each bar covers a range of values, and the bars are s…

  • HOW TO: Download Your Wrangle Script

    1. Click the Open Script button at the right side of the Transformer Grid: 2. From the Script Viewer, click the Download button: The Download window opens.3. Select the Wrangle Script option to download a copy of the complete Wrangle script for your dataset: 4. Click Download. Your download should begin automatically.In Trifacta Wrangler free desktop edition:4. Click Save, then choose a na…

  • FAQ: Sampling 101

    Sampling is only available in Wrangler Enterprise.The initial content shown in the Transformer after a dataset is created is pulled from the beginning of its data (i.e. the first byte) until the number of bytes configured as the default sample size (10MB by default), or the end of the data file -- whichever comes first. If the data file is larger than the configured sample size, th…

  • HOW TO: Collect a New Random Sample

    Sampling is only available in Wrangler Enterprise.New random samples can be generated to get more accurately representative distributions of a your data. However, if generating a random sample for a certain version of the dataset's script would produce a sample that is equivalent to an existing random sample (e.g. no transforms have been done that alter the makeup of the data’s rows), then …

  • FAQ: What is a Sample?

    Samples are contextual to the current state of a project’s script. To see how a given sample relates to the current script, click the Sample Information icon (which appears when the mouse cursor is moved over a sample in the sampling menu):  A dialog will pop up, showing the script used to generate the sample, as well as the current version of the project’s script, for side-by-side comparis…

  • FAQ: What is a Dictionary?

    A dictionary is a structured data set which consists of one or more columns. Dictionaries represent master data, and may be used to map values in one data set to a canonical (preferred/uniform) value.See also:FAQ: What is a Custom Type?VIDEO: Using Dictionaries to Validate Data Typeskeywords: dictionary, custom type, type validation, master data, map…

  • FAQ: What is a Lookup?

    The process of matching by computer the words of a text with material stored in memory.*In Trifacta, this operation performs checks against a reference data set. The lookup accepts an input value and searches for a row in the reference data that contains the value in a specified field. Once a match is found, the values in reference data set can be used in a variety of ways. For example, values fro…

  • FAQ: What is Epoch/Unix Time?

    Unix time (a.k.a. POSIX time or Epoch time) is a system for describing instants in time, defined as the number of milliseconds that have elapsed since 00:00:00 Coordinated Universal Time (UTC), Thursday, 1 January 1970, not counting leap seconds.*Unix or epoch time is often used in computer logs. Trifacta offers the ability to convert dates to and from this format. See unixtimeformat and dateforma…

  • FAQ: What is a Left Outer Join?

    OverviewA left outer join (or left join) does not require that there be matching records for each value in the key value of the source (left) table. Each row in the left table appears in the results, regardless of whether there are matches in the right table.ExampleA user wants to perform a left outer join on the following two tables using DepartmentID as a key:Employee table:NameDepartmentIDRoleD…

  • FAQ: What is a Right Outer Join?

    OverviewA right outer join (or right join) is the reverse of a left join. A right join does not require that there be matching records for each value in the key value of the secondary (right) table. Each row in the right table appears in the results, regardless of whether there are matches in the left table.ExampleA user wants to perform a right outer join on the following two tables using Departm…

  • FAQ: What is an Inner Join?

    OverviewAn inner join requires that key values exist in both tables for the records to appear in the results table. Records appear in the merge only if there are matches in both tables for the key values. An inner join can be used to eliminate rows with null values in their key fields.If you wish to include rows containing non-matching values, you must use some form of an outer join. ExampleA use…

  • FAQ: What is a Full Outer Join?

    OverviewA full outer join combines the effects of a left join and a right join. If there is a match between the key values, a row is written in the result.If there is no match for a key value that appears in either table, a single record is written to the result, with NULL values inserted for the fields from the other table. ExampleA user wants to perform a full outer join on the following two tab…

  • FAQ: What is the syntax for an array?

    When writing a line of Wrangle script, arrays should have the following form:[“value1”,”value2”...]Values must be contained in double quotes, regardless of the data type of individual value elements.…

  • FAQ: What is the syntax for a map?

    When writing a line of Wrangle script, maps should have the following form:{“key1”:”value1”,”key2”:”value2”...}Keys and values must be contained in double quotes, regardless of the data type of individual key and value elements.…

  • HOW TO: Transform Rows

    Using the sourcerownumber parameter allows you makes transformations to rows in a dataset.  You can use this function to promote any row to the header and delete rows or a range of rows.Example 1:Promote any row to the header.1. In the transform editor type in the header transformation.  Then sourcerownumber parameter to choose the row number to promote to the header.  In the example below we w…

  • HOW TO: Copy a Column

    Use the Derive transform to copy a column.1. Begin typing “derive” in the Transform Editor. Trifacta’s type-ahead functionality will suggest the parameters that you need to include to create a valid transform. 2. Enter the name of the column to be copied in the value parameter, as shown in the following image: This transform will create a copy of the column named "Address". 3.…

  • FAQ: What is the difference between the “split” and “extract” transforms?

    The “split” transform and the “extract” transform treat the original column and the matched pattern differently.Handling of the original column: When you apply a “split” transform to your dataset, Trifacta drops the original column. When you apply an “extract” transform to your dataset, Trifacta preserves the original column. Handling of the matched pattern: The matched pattern is …

  • HOW TO: Undo and Redo Transforms

    1. Click the Undo icon at the top of the Transformer Grid to undo the most recent transform:2. Click the Redo icon at the top of the Transformer Grid to redo the most recent transform that has been undone:The Redo icon is the inverse of the Undo icon.…

  • FAQ: What is a Join?

    A join clause combines records from two or more tables in a database. It creates a set that can be saved as a table or used as it is. A join is a means for combining fields from two tables (or more) by using values common to each.* Trifacta supports four types of joins: Inner  Left Outer         …

  • HOW TO: Create Session IDs

    We support a simple, time-out based approach to create session IDs. More specifically, within an aggregation group and given an ordering on the records/rows within the group, you can use the window transform with the session function to specify the cut-off between “sessions” (contiguous records/rows) in terms of a time-out (minimum difference in a timestamp for each record/row).Session IDs are…

  • HOW TO: Un-pivot or Denormalize Data

    1. In the Transformer Grid, select the columns that contain the data that you want to denormalize:  Tip: You can hold down the ctrl key to select multiple columns.2. Trifacta generates a series of suggested transforms based on your selection.3. Select the suggestion card that contains the Unpivot transform: 4. Trifacta updates the Transformer Grid with a preview of the Unpivot transform: …

  • HOW TO: Structure Jagged Records

    Datasets may contain records/rows with variable number of fields/columns. For example, it is common in json formatted records to have different keys appear in different records. Or, you might have a CSV file where some but not all rows have a total value.In some cases, it is sufficient to define fields/columns for every possible input field/column, and retain NULL or blank cell values when those f…

  • HOW TO: Create a Binary Indicator Column

    Use the Valuestocols transform to create a binary indicator column.1. Click on the Transform Editor and begin typing “valuestocols.” Trifacta’s type-ahead functionality will suggest the parameters that you need to include in the Valuestocols transform.  2. In the Valuestocols transform, enter the name of the column that contains the data that you want to represent in binary indicator colu…

  • HOW TO: Build a Map from Arrays

    Build a map from arrays:If you have an array of keys and an array of values in separate columns and you'd like to  stitch them together into a map; follow the steps below.First, zip the two arrays together:derive value: zip([keyArray, valueArray])Then do some string manipulation to get the joined object into the correct syntax:replace col: zippedArray on: '[[' with: '{'re…

  • HOW TO: Compute Group Entropy

    Computing Group Entropy:Observed entropy can be a useful feature in many machine learning models or as a general value for determining data quality.To compute entropy over a group, perform the following steps: aggregate state counts per groupconvert the state counts to probabilitiesderive the element-wise contribution of the probabilities to the entropy calculation (-p * log_2 (p))sum the element…

  • FAQ: Does Trifacta support Java UDFs?

    A Java UDF is a User Defined Function written in the Java programming language. Trifacta supports uploading custom Java UDFs to be integrated into your Trifacta workflows.…

  • HOW TO: Create an Aggregation

    You can use the Aggregate Builder to design Aggregate transforms through a visual interface. 1. Open the dataset that you want to transform. 2. Click the hammer icon in the Transform Editor to open the “Tools” dialog box. 3. Click “Aggregate” from the “Tools” dialog box. The Aggregate Builder window opens. The following screenshot shows the elements of the Aggregate Builder window: 4. …

  • HOW TO: Rename a Column

    1. Click the down arrow in the header row of the column that you want to rename: 2. From the menu that appears, select Rename: 3. Enter the new name for the column in the pop-up window: Note: Column names cannot include spaces.4. Click Submit to rename the column.keywords: rename, column names, transform…

  • HOW TO: Find and Replace Values in a Column

    1. In the transformer grid, brush over an example of the value that you want Trifacta to search for in your column. In the following image, we have selected the text that says “INACTIVE”: 2. Trifacta will generate a set of cards containing suggested transforms: 3. Click the suggestion card that contains the Replace transform. 4. Trifacta updates the transformer grid with a preview of the…

  • HOW TO: Deduplicate a Dataset

    To remove duplicate rows from a dataset, use the Deduplicate transform.1. Click on the Transform Editor and type “deduplicate”: Trifacta will generate a preview showing the duplicate rows that will be removed from the dataset, as shown in the following image: 2. Click on the Add to Script button in the Transform Editor to apply the transformation to your dataset.keywords: deduplicate, re…

  • HOW TO: Delete Rows from a Dataset

    Trifacta removes rows from a dataset based on the values contained in each row. You can identify rows to delete through two predictive transformation methods.METHOD 1: Use the Column Histogram to Identify Rows to Delete1. Brush over values in the histogram at the top of the column:  Trifacta will highlight the rows in your dataset that contain the selected values.2. Trifacta generates cards con…

  • HOW TO: Remove a Column from a Dataset

    1. Click on the down arrow next to the name of the column that you want to remove from your dataset.2. Select Drop from the column options menu: Trifacta removes the selected column from the dataset.…

  • HOW TO: Rearrange Columns in a Dataset

    1. Select the Column Browser icon at the left side of the Transformer Grid: The Column Browser view opens.2. Click on Edit in the Column Browser pane: Trifacta opens a simplified list of the columns in your dataset.3. Identify the column that you want to move to a new position in your dataset. Click the handle at the left side of the column and drag the column into a new position in the list…

  • HOW TO: Move Columns to the Beginning or End of a Dataset

    1.  Select the Column Browser icon at the left side of the Transformer Grid: The Column Browser view opens.2. Click on Edit in the Column Browser pane: Trifacta opens a simplified list of the columns in your dataset.3. Place a check mark next to the columns that you want to move to the beginning or end of your dataset. 4. Click Edit Selected at the top of the column list. 5. From the column…

  • HOW TO: Apply Transforms to Multiple Columns

    Several Trifacta Transformation verbs can be applied to multiple columns. These functions perform transformations on two or more columns instead of on a single column.The following table provides a brief description of the aggregate functions that you can use in Trifacta. You can click on the name of each aggregate function for a more detailed explanation of that function. Function De…

  • HOW TO: Concatenate a Column and a String

    Use the Merge transform to concatenate a column of values and a specified string value.1. Click on the Transform Editor and begin typing “merge.” Trifacta’s type-ahead functionality will suggest the parameters that you need to include in the Merge transform.  2. In the Merge transform, enter the name of the column that you want to use in the concatenation, followed by the string value that …

  • HOW TO: Sort Records in a Dataset

    1. Identify the column that contains the values that you want to use to sort your dataset.2. Click on the down arrow next to the column name. 3. Select Sort ascending or Sort descending from the column options menu: See also:DEFINITION: Sort TransformVIDEO: Sorting Rows in a Datasetkeywords: sort, ascending, descending …

  • HOW TO: Filter a Dataset

    You can filter a dataset in Trifacta based on the values contained in a column.1. In the Transformer Grid, brush over an example of the value that you want Trifacta to use as a filter. In the following image, we have selected the text that says “MTC”: 2. Trifacta generates a set of cards containing suggested transforms.3. Click the suggestion card that contains the Keep transform: The K…

  • HOW TO: Un-nest an Array into Multiple Rows

    1. Click on the name of the column that contains the array that you want to unnest: 2. Trifacta generates a series of suggested transforms. Scroll through the suggestion cards and select the card containing the Unnest transform: 3. Click Add to Script to apply the Unnest transform to your dataset.4. Trifacta generates a new column in your dataset that contains one row for each value in the o…

  • HOW TO: Calculate the Minimum Value in a Column

    You can use the Derive transform and the "min" function to calculate the minimum value in a column and then fold that value back into the original dataset.1. Type “derive” in the Transform Editor. Trifacta’s type-ahead functionality will suggest the parameters that you need to include to create a valid expression. In the following image, we are deriving the minimum value for the co…

  • HOW TO: Calculate the Maximum Value in a Column

    You can use the Derive transform and the "max" function to calculate the maximum value in a column and then fold that value back into the original dataset.1. Type “derive” in the Transform Editor. Trifacta’s type-ahead functionality will suggest the parameters that you need to include to create a valid expression. In the following image, we are deriving the maximum value in the col…

  • HOW TO: Calculate the Difference Between Two Dates

    To calculate the difference between two dates, use the “datediff” function in your transform. 1. Begin typing “derive” in the Transform Editor. Trifacta’s type-ahead functionality will suggest the parameters that you need to include to create a valid transform. 2. Include the “datediff” function in the Derive transform, as shown in the following image: This function calculates the…

  • HOW TO: Change the Format of a Date

    To change the format of a date, use the “dateformat” function in your transform. 1. Begin typing “set” in the Transform Editor. Trifacta’s type-ahead functionality will suggest the parameters that you need to include to create a valid transform. 2. Include the “dateformat” function in the Set transform, as shown in the following image: The dateformat function formats the date usin…

  • HOW TO: Create a Map of Key-Value Pairs

    1. In the Transformer Grid, select the columns that contain the data that you want to convert to a map of key-value pairs: Tip: You can hold down the Ctrl key (on Windows) or the Command key (on Mac) to select multiple columns. 2. Trifacta generates a series of suggested transforms based on your selection.3. Select the suggestion card that contains the Nest transform, as shown in the following …

  • HOW TO: Combine Multiple Columns

    1. In the Transformer Grid, select the columns that you want to merge, as shown in the following image: Tip: You can hold down the Ctrl key (on Windows) or the Command key (on Mac) to select multiple columns. 2. Trifacta generates a series of suggested transforms based on your suggestion. 3. Select the suggestion card that contains the Merge transform: The Merge transform will create a ne…

  • FAQ: What is data aggregation and when should I aggregate?

    Data aggregation is a fundamental practice in data warehousing and analytics, as it allows consumers of business intelligence products to quickly assess, draw conclusions and make decisions based on large amounts of raw data. The idea of an aggregate is to apply calculations across categories and then use the resulting high-level summary information to present overall statistics. For example, you …

  • HOW TO: Delete Multiple Columns

    You can delete multiple columns from your dataset either through predictive transformation or by using the column browser.METHOD 1: Delete Columns through Predictive Transformation1. In the Transformer Grid, select the columns that you want to delete: Tip: You can hold down the Ctrl key (on Windows) or the Command key (on Mac) to select multiple columns.2. Trifacta generates a series of suggest…

  • HOW TO: Manage Currency Conversions

    To standardize your dataset, you may be required to convert data from one currency to another. This article explains how to manage currency conversions in your datasets using a lookup to an exchange rate reference table.STEP1: Build Your Exchange Rate Reference Dataset1. Create a source file to use as the basis for your exchange rate reference dataset. You can create the reference file in any form…

  • HOW TO: Un-nest a Map

    1. Click on the name of the column that you want to unnest: 2. Trifacta generates a series of suggested transforms. Scroll through the suggestion cards and select the card containing the Unnest transform: 3. Click Add to Script to apply the Unnest transform to your dataset.See also:VIDEO: Un-nesting a Mapkeywords: un-nest, map…

  • HOW TO: Extract the Domain from a URL

    To extract the domain from a URL, use the Derive transform and the “domain” function.1. Begin typing “derive” in the Transform Editor. Trifacta’s type-ahead functionality will suggest the parameters that you need to include to create a valid transform. 2. Include the “domain” function in the Derive transform, as shown in the following image: The “domain” function extracts the d…

  • HOW TO: Calculate the Sum of Values in a Column

    The calculate the sum of values in a column, use the “sum” function.1. Begin typing “derive” in the Transform Editor. Trifacta’s type-ahead functionality will suggest the parameters that you need to include to create a valid transform. 2. Include the “sum” function in the Derive transform, as shown in the following image: 3. Trifacta will generates a preview of the transform: Th…

  • HOW TO: Use a Reference Dataset to Standardize Column Values

    Often, the records in a dataset contain invalid or non-standard data. These formatting issues can impact the overall quality of the data analytics processes dependent on the data. This article explains how to use a lookup to a reference dataset to standardize the values in a column.STEP 1: Build your Reference Dataset of Standardized Values1. Create a source file to use as the basis for your refer…

  • HOW TO: Calculate the Population Variance of a Column

    You can calculate the population variance of a column either through predictive transformation or by using the aggregate tool.Method 1: Using Predictive Transformation1. In the Transformer Grid, click the column headers for the columns you want to group and the numeric column to which you want to apply the variance: 2. Trifacta generates a series of suggestions based on your selection.3. Find th…

  • HOW TO: Calculate the Population Standard Deviation of a Column

    You can calculate the population standard deviation of a column either through predictive transformation or by using the aggregate tool.Method 1: Using Predictive Transformation1. In the Transformer Grid, click the column headers for the columns you want to group and the numeric column to which you want to apply the standard deviation: 2. Trifacta generates a series of suggestions based on your …

  • HOW TO: Split Data into Multiple Columns

    1. In the Transformer Grid, select the delimiter that separates the data elements that you want in separate columns. 2. Trifacta generates a series of Suggestions based on your selection. 3. You can preview the results of each transform by clicking on the Suggestion Card.  4. Select the Suggestion Card containing the Split transform to split a single column into multiple columns. The delimit…

  • FAQ: What should I do if my suggested transforms filter all of my data away?

    It’s possible for all of the data you’re working with in transformer to be excluded, or filtered out by a transform. ExampleYou might be working with data about web traffic and you wanted to filter out "GET" requests. It just so happens that your current working sample only contains "GET" requests, so you will be left without any data in the grid, …

  • HOW TO: Create a Header Row

    1. Click the row number to the left of the first column in your dataset, as shown below:  Trifacta will provide a series of cards showing suggested transforms.2. From Suggestions, select the card that shows the header transform: 3. Click the Add to Script button to apply the header transform to your dataset.keywords: header, column_names …

  • HOW TO: Find the Three Largest Values in a Column

    1. Use the Derive transform and the kthlargest function to create a new column containing the third largest value in the source column: derive value: kthlargest(totalRevenue, 3)The following image shows this transform applied to an example dataset that contains total revenue figures for individual salespeople: 2. Use the Keep transform to filter the dataset so that the dataset only contains rows…

  • HOW TO: Create a Union Using an Outer Join

    1. Add dummy join key columns into each dataset by adding a transform like:derive value: 'unique_key_1'Dummy join key column added to first dataset: Dummy join key column added to second dataset: NOTE: The key values must be different for each dataset that you are unioning. If any of the keys match, Trifacta will attempt to combine those records (join) instead of simply adding both r…

  • HOW TO: Apply a Transform to Mismatched Data

    1. Navigate to the column in your dataset that contains mismatched values.2. Click on the red section of the data quality bar for the column, as shown in the following image: 3. Trifacta highlights the mismatched data values and suggests a series of transformations that you can apply to the mismatched data: 4. Select the Suggestion Card that contains the transform that you want to apply to t…

  • HOW TO: Replace Blank Values in a Column

    1. Navigate to the column in your dataset that contains blank values.2. Click on the grey section of the data quality bar for the column, as shown in the following image: Trifacta generates a series of suggested transforms that you can apply to the blank data.3. Click the Suggestion Card that contains the Set transform. By default, the Set transform replaces the blank values with a null value.4…

  • ERROR: Requested Data Not Found in Trifacta Wrangler

    Problem Description When you open a previously created dataset in Trifacta Wrangler, the data will not load and the following error message appears: Please reload page (query execution failed). File not found. Reason: Requested data was not found : <file_path>. Cause This error occurs when the datasource associated with your dataset has been moved, and is no longer located at the path s…

  • HOW TO: Union – Custom Column Name Matching

    There are two ways to Union datasets together, by column name and by column position. But what if your datasets do not match either way? You can use custom column matching matching to manually combine columns together. 1. Click on “Add Datasets and Align by Name” when adding the dataset to the Union (You can also add by position, but aligning by name may be easier). In the example below, none …